Most Memorable Movements

The story of Somalilander decline from stability to chaos and the problems facing its people at home and abroad.
2250 BCE

Chronology Somaliland

Somaliland has a long history that goes back thousands of years. Around 12,000-year-old Neolithic paintings in Las Geel, near Hargeisa, the capital, show that Somaliland was home to the earliest civilizations in the world. Somaliland, as part of the Land of Punt was a major trading partner with ancient Egyptians as records during the reign of Sahura of the Fifth Dynasty around 2250 BCE indicate. The coastal cities of Zeila, Berbera and Maydh were deeply involved in spice trade with the Romans. ...

Challenges and opportunities

The biggest challenge which Somaliland faces in the international foreign affairs arena is the task of securing recognition as a sovereign state. Somaliland has an indisputable legal case to be recognized. It fulfils all the requirements of statehood in international law including: A permanent population A defined territory A stable system of Government Capacity to enter into relations with Sovereign States Somaliland Army 1930 Somaliland comprises the territory, boun...

Somaliland has also its own:

Somaliland’s constitution stipulates a multi-party, pluralistic democratic system, with a presidential executive branch, a bicameral parliament and an independent judiciary. Since the approval of the constitution, Somaliland has held four successive peaceful, fair and free elections: one municipal, one parliamentary and three presidential elections. The absence of recognition creates a host of challenges which Somaliland faces, including: Lack of access to direct bilateral and multilateral...

Somaliland has also opportunities and strengths:

It has proven to possess the capacity and resilience to overcome enormous difficulties It succeeded in building peace and stability in a conflict prone region It established democratic systems and institutions It has been able to achieve remarkable progress in the last twenty years against the odds It is located in a very strategic location and can play a constructive role in ensuring regional security

The history of Somaliland

The region probably formed part of the “Land of Punt” known to the ancient Egyptians. Between the 7th and the 12th century CE, cities such as Seylac and Berbera on the Gulf of Aden served as trading ports in a region that the Arab Islamic world called bilad al-Barbar (“country of the Barbar”), Barbar (also Berber, Barbaroi) being a name for the Somali people of the region based on the descriptions of the inhabitants of the area found in the Greek document Periplus Maris Erythraei (1st century CE...


Somaliland has an ancient history and civilization. For a long period in the past, Somaliland had well-established trade links with the rest of the world particularly ancient Egypt (the Pharaohs), the Romans, the Arabian Peninsula and the Indian sub-continent. Commodities like hides and skins, frankincense and myrrh, ivory, gums, feathers were traded in exchange for consumer products such as sugar, tea, dates, clothes etc. It was uniquely the hub of spices trade (Frankincense and Myrrh). The tra...


Somaliland is a self-declared sovereign state that is recognised as an autonomous region of Somalia by the international community. Its government regards the territory as the successor state to the State of Somaliland, and seeks self-determination as the Republic of Somaliland. The history of Somaliland, a region of the eastern horn of Africa bordered by the Pacific Ocean, Gulf of Aden, and the east African land mass, begins with human habitation tens of thousands of years ago. It includes the...
2250 BCE


The Laas Geel complex on the outskirts of Hargeisa in northwestern Somaliland dates back around 6,000 years, and has rock art depicting both wild animals and decorated cows. Other cave paintings are found in the northern Dhambalin region, which feature one of the earliest known depictions of a hunter on horseback. The rock art dated to 1000 to 3000 BCE. Additionally, between the towns of Las Khorey and El Ayo in northern Somaliland lies Karinhegane, the site of numerous cave paintings of real an...
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